27 December 2017
I’ve used Kali Linux as a daily driver on my Dell XPS 15 for most of the last year, and it works well for that purpose. There are a couple of things you need to do when setting it up to get it to run smoothly though.
You need to change the following two settings in the BIOS. Now is a good time to set a BIOS password if you haven’t already.
You can upgrade the BIOS using the boot menu and a FREEDOS-formatted usb stick with the latest firmware (.EXE). Firmware versions 1.2.10 through 1.2.16 of the firmware have been associated with a series of bugs, but with December’s news about Meltdown and Spectre you will want to update to 1.6.1 or greater so that you have the mitigations for those exploits.
Install Kali Linux with a USB. I used rufus on Windows to DD a copy of the amd64 ISO directly onto the USB stick. Etcher is another fine choice. I chose to use the whole disk - I’ll virtualize Windows rather than dual boot it.
Whilst installing, you will get a request for additional firmware - brcmfmac43602-pcie.txt, which I’ve been unable to find. Some guides reference using brcmfmac43602-pcie.bin instead, but the installer doesn’t accept that in place of the .txt file. Just skip this, and wireless will work fine anyway. You may find the bluetooth doesn’t work that well - I chose to spend $15 and get an Intel AC8260 card and replaced the existing one.
After the initial installation, make sure your installation is up to date.
apt update && apt upgrade && apt dist-upgrade && apt autoremove
This will take some time, and you should reboot afterwards.
Some programs (VLC, Google Chrome, Visual Studio Code, etc.) object to being run as root, and I want to use different programs depending on what I’m doing, so I create a normal user for daily use.
adduser -m username -s /bin/bash && gpasswd -a username sudo
Since this laptop has an intel and nvidia graphics card, installing optimus will allow you to access the nvidia card for those programs that require it. Reboot after installing. In my case I had to reboot twice - it failed to boot the first time for some reason.
apt install bumblebee-nvidia && systemctl enable bumblebeed # You will need to add your everyday user to the bumblebee group as well gpasswd -a username bumblebee # Once that's done, it's time to update some config files. Firstly, # edit /etc/bumblebee/bumblebee.conf and change line 22 from: Driver= # to Driver=nvidia
lspci | grep NVIDIA to get your graphics card’s BusID. Mine is:
01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GM107M [GeForce GTX 960M] (rev ff)
/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, uncomment the BusID line, and update it if yours is different.
This should get everything working. You can see the two cards working by running:
glxinfo | grep vendor # intel optirun glxinfo | grep vendor # nvidia
If you run glxgears with both, you’ll notice the performance is about the same, which isn’t right. To fix this, install VirtualGL, which has to be downloaded separately. Go to https://sourceforge.net/projects/virtualgl/files/ and download the latest amd64.deb, and install it:
dpkg -i virtualgl_X.X.X_amd64.deb
After that, you can run glxgears / optirun glxgears, and you should see a noticeable difference. If you have an everyday user account you want to use in a similar fashion, you’ll need to add it to the bumblebee group. This now gives you the ability to use the nvidia card for password cracking, but note that in most cases, offloading password cracking to a cloud instance is a better approach than running it on a laptop.
So that the OS can tell the temperature it’s operating at, and control the fans, you will need to install lm-sensors, and activate them
apt install lm-sensors sensors-detect
When sensors-detect asks if you want to make changes to /etc/modules automatically, say yes. Then make sure it loads on next boot:
systemctl enable lm-sensors
Run the following to set precise screen dimensions:
xrandr --dpi 288
The hidpi display is readable in its initial state, but if you prefer different settings, you can go into gnome-tweak and alter the scaling size of the font and windows.
In a similar vein, to avoid a tiny GRUB screen, edit
/etc/default/grub, and add
GRUB_GFXMODE=1024x768. You’ll probably also want to set the timeout to zero to make it boot faster. Once that’s done, run sudo update-grub.
You have the option of scaling QT programs, such as VLC. I personally don’t use this setting, and instead look for GTK3 software, with the knowledge that it will support scaling. You can scale QT programs by creating a script in /etc/profile.d/, called qt-hidpi.sh. In that file, put:
The results are usable, but not great. Read this article for more info.
smartd monitors your SMART capable devices for temperature and errors. Unfortunately, NVMe support is still experimental for smartd, so it doesn’t scan for it by default, and fails on boot. You can fix this by telling it to scan for NVMe drives by adding
-d nvme to
/etc/smartd.conf in the DEVICESCAN line. Make the first uncommented line in
/etc/smartd.conf look like this:
DEVICESCAN -d removable -d nvme -n standby -m root -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
To get pinch, zoom, and other gestures working, we need to install libinput-gestures, which has some dependencies, and requires a config file.
# Install Dependencies apt install libinput-tools xdotool wmctrl # Add your everyday user to the 'input' group gpasswd -a <username> input # Build and Install libinput-gestures git clone http://github.com/bulletmark/libinput-gestures cd libinput-gestures sudo ./libinput-gestures-setup install
You will need to log your everyday user out and in if you are using it, so that the ‘input’ group is recognised. Then you will need to switch to your everyday user account and create the following config file in
# ~/.config/libinput-gestures.conf # Go back/forward in chrome gesture: swipe right 3 xdotool key Alt+Left gesture: swipe left 3 xdotool key Alt+Right # Zoom in / Zoom out gesture: pinch out xdotool key Ctrl+plus gesture: pinch in xdotool key Ctrl+minus # Switch between desktops gesture: swipe up 4 xdotool set_desktop --relative 1 gesture: swipe down 4 xdotool set_desktop --relative -- -1</pre>
Then, as your everyday user account:
libinput-gestures-setup start libinput-gestures-setup autostart
This requires the cups service to be installed and started:
apt install cups systemctl start cups.service systemctl enable cups # Then add your everyday user to the 'lpadmin' group to enable you # to administer printers without going via root gpasswd -a <username> lpadmin
Install this Gnome Extension: block-caribou. This is a bug, and you won’t need the extension permanently.
First, install the following packages
tlp tlp-rdw powertop. The first two are a for a power tuning daemon for laptops. You can activate it by enabling the service:
systemctl enable tlp.service
Powertop is a power usage analyser, which will recommend settings that you can apply. Ideally you should create unit files and configuration changes for each recommendation, but for a quick and practical approach, you can have powertop make all the changes for you. Create the following file
/etc/systemd/system/powertop.service and input the following:
[Unit] Description=PowerTOP auto tune [Service] Type=idle Environment="TERM=dumb" ExecStart=/usr/sbin/powertop --auto-tune [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target</pre> Then issue the following commands to let systemd see it and activate it: <pre class="lang:sh decode:true">systemctl daemon-reload systemctl start powertop.service systemctl enable powertop.service
And finally, confirm by running powertop that all settings are set to good by default.
With all of the above done, you should have a reasonably stable and working machine. There are still a few bugs that have been fixed upstream which will improve your experience as they come through to kali. I’ll post another update if I discover anything new worth sharing.
First step is to install bluetooth support with
apt install bluetooth and rebooting. According to this post, you also need to download the windows firmware, and copy it into
/lib/firmware/brcm. Enable the bluetooth service and reboot.
systemctl start bluetooth && systemctl enable bluetooth
After a reboot, bluetooth will somewhat work. I was able to pair with a Logitech Anywhere MX 2 mouse, and use it with a small amount of lag, but I also tried Bose Soundsport wireless headphones, and they don’t work at all. I’m ordering an Intel 9260 wireless card to see if that solves the problem.